For the economy and the financial system to function properly, private individuals, businesses, public sector institutions and banks need to be able to make payments and securities transfers through efficient and reliable payment and settlement systems.

Interruptions to the flow of payments can hinder the functioning of the entire economy, for example if wages do not reach the accounts of employees or if cards cannot be used for payment in shops. If one bank causes a delay in the movement of payments from one bank to another, the other banks will trust the bank responsible less, and this could have an impact on the whole banking system and on the economy.

Alongside the settlement systems of Eesti Pank, the systems that are vital for everyday payments are the card payment system, the pan-European payment STEP2 system for interbank payments, and the securities settlement system.