Price stability means low but stable inflation. This helps people and companies make economically sound decisions in their plans for the future and their salary requests, creating the right conditions for economic growth.
Only the central bank can create and issue currency. By changing the price of the money borrowed by the commercial banks and the amounts they can take, the central bank can affect the conditions for loans taken by people and companies. In this way the central bank can affect inflation.
When the central bank changes the prices and amounts of money the commercial banks can borrow, the effect is passed on into the economy as a whole, and particularly into prices. The monetary policy transmission mechanism is the various channels by which the central bank’s actions are passed into the economy.
The central banks of the euro area act to meet the goals of the single euro-area monetary policy in a decentralised way, doing so within the agreed solutions and principles that together are called the operational framework.
For people to have faith in a currency, the value and stability of that currency must be backed up, and this is done with the reserves of the central banks. Currency reserves have a key role in maintaining confidence in the economy and in supporting the stability of the financial system.
The Estonian Competitiveness Report is published once a year. Competitiveness is analysed through Estonian export capacity (relative productivity growth, changes in export indicators and similar) and relative price and cost competitiveness indicators.
The Labour Market Review discusses the most important trends in the Estonian labour market, labour supply and demand, institutional developments of the labour market, and other related issues. The review is published twice a year.
The monetary policy of the central bank may seem to be a difficult topic and most people do not think about it every day. It affects all of us though, when we go to the shops, buy a house, take a loan or save for our pensions.
The financial system needs to be strong and able to stand up to risks. This is why Eesti Pank has taken various measures such as requiring additional buffers from the banks and setting restrictions that the banks must adhere to when issuing mortgages.
Even when preventative work has been done well, failures can arise in the banking system at speed, passing on into the economy and potentially causing wider damage in society. Eesti Pank, the Financial Supervision Authority and the government work together to resolve financial crises.
Central supervision of the largest banks in the euro area helps make sure that the banks are all analysed and assessed in the same way and that the risk assessments use a similar base. This then helps make all of the banking sector in the euro area more credible.
The Financial Stability Review is the main output of the financial stability analysis conducted by Eesti Pank. The review includes also the central bank’s assessment to Estonian financial stability and covers related policy measures. The Financial Stability Review is published twice a year.
The Structure of the Estonian Financial Sector discusses factors that affect the architecture and design of the financial sector in Estonia. It provides a background for understanding the development trends and risks described in the Financial Stability Review.
Financial accounts are accounts of the national accounts system, which reflect the positions of financial assets and liabilities, transactional and non-transactional changes of both the economy as a whole and different institutional sectors.
The functioning of payment and settlement systems is important for maintaining the stability of the national economic and financial system, avoiding interruptions to the circulation of currency, and allowing monetary policy to be implemented smoothly.
The Emergency Act defines cash circulation and payment services as vital services. The Eesti Pank minimum requirement is that the four largest banks operating in Estonia should restore at least 70% of ordinary banking services within 12 hours at most following a breakdown.
The research work of the central bank has four focuses: improvement of the macroeconomic and banking models; monetary policy research; research into the financial sector; and research into the real economy. Research results are published in the Working Paper series of Eesti Pank.
The Eesti Pank research awards are intended to recognise young Estonian researchers in academic economics. The awards are granted in two categories, one for doctoral work and one for master’s level work.
The central bank supports research in Estonia and abroad in several ways, with a programme of guest researchers and internships, organisation of joint conferences, membership of the Estonian Economic Association, and work with the doctoral schools of the University of Tartu and Tallinn University of Technology.
The Working Papers are summaries of the research conducted by Eesti Pank. The target group of the Working Papers includes, above all, economists and economic experts, and the papers are published often only in English.
Eesti Pank makes sure that there is sufficient good-quality money available in Estonia and works with the European Central Bank and other central banks in the euro area to release euro banknotes and coins into circulation.
Collector coins are legal tender, but their high value means they are more usually used as souvenirs and collectors items than as circulation coins. €2 commemorative coins are special circulation coins with a special design on the national side in commemoration of a particular event or topic.
Anybody can verify the authenticity of a banknote easily if there is a suspicion that it is counterfeit by just feeling it, looking at it and tilting it, checking the security features, or comparing it to an authentic banknote. If it is suspected that a banknote is counterfeit, the police should be informed.
Companies can return banknotes into circulation only once the notes have been tested to European standards. Companies can test cash using specially designed devices or, if they do not have any, manually.
Eesti Pank is a constantly developing organisation that adapts its work and its processes to its ever-changing environment and to new requirements. Our mission and vision, and our organisational values, tasks and strategic goals explain our position and our organisational structure.
Eesti Pank works together with international monetary and financial institutions like the ESRB, the EBA, the BIS and the OECD, and with the European Commission and the Council of the European Union. It also partners the central banks of other countries through the Eurosystem, the European System of Central Banks, and the central banks of the Nordic and Baltic countries. Eesti Pank represents Estonia in the IMF.
Eesti Pank is a constitutional institution that operates under its own statues and under the law. The central bank sets policy for the financial sector and supervises it and the Governor of the bank issues decrees that regulate the banking industry. All the main legislation governing the operation of Eesti Pank is listed here, with links to related laws and decrees.
Eesti Pank must publish information on its activities. Financial statements give an annual picture of the assets and liabilities of the central bank and of its revenues and expenses. The bank also publishes its balance sheet every quarter.
Eesti Pank releases regular announcements about its activities and about important economic policy questions. This is done through press releases, speeches, presentations, articles and interviews. There is a collection of photographs of Eesti Pank spokespeople in the photo bank. Eesti Pank also publishes press releases from the European Central Bank.
Eesti Pank is a constantly developing organisation that adapts its work and its processes to its ever-changing environment and to new requirements. The bank has 11 departments that employ a total of 230 colleagues.
The Annual Report gives an overview of the central bank’s activities in the reporting year and the financial statement. The annexes to the Annual Report include a list of decrees issued by the Governor of Eesti Pank, a list of decisions adopted by the Governing Council of the ECB, and a list of Eesti Pank's publications issued during the year.
Rootsi keskpanga poolt Alfred Nobeli mälestuseks välja antava
majandusauhinna, mida sageli nimetatakse Nobeli majanduspreemiaks, pälvisid
tänavu Abhijit Banerjee, Esther Duflo ja Michael Kremer eksperimentaalse
lähenemise eest globaalse vaesuse leevendamisel. Nimetatud kolmiku valik ei
tulnud suure üllatusena – kihlveokontorites on peetud nende võitu juba
mitu aastat väga tõenäoliseks.
2017. aasta Nobeli majandusauhind anti Richard Thalerile Chicago ülikoolist
panuse eest käitumisökonoomika uurimisse. Thaler on kogu oma karjääri
vältel uurinud inimeste tegelikku käitumist ja selle mõju majanduslikele
otsustele, sh säästmisele, investeerimisele ja tarbimisele.
Tänavuse Nobeli majanduspreemia pälvisid Oliver Hart Harvardi ülikoolist
ning Bengt Holmström Massachusettsi tehnoloogiainstituudist. Auhinna said
nad lepinguteooria arendamise eest. Oliver Hart on britt, Bengt Holmström
aga soomerootslane. Tema vanaema oli eestlane, seega on rootslastel ja
eestlastel sel aastal veelgi suurem põhjus rõõmustada. Nii Hart kui ka
Holmström on aastakümneid USAs elanud ning see, et Nobeli preemia neile
anti, osutab taas kord sellele, kui tugevalt USA majandusteaduste vallas
Konkurentsivõime ja ekspordi seos erineb riigiti ja eri aegadel ning seda on
sageli keeruline täpselt hinnata
Areneva turumajandusega riikides võib aidata väljavedu suurendada ekspordi
parem kvaliteet, isegi kui hinna- või kulukonkurentsivõime näitajad
Lühiajaliselt võivad sisenõudlus ja eksport teineteist asendada
Kasvav sisenõudlus võib eksporti piirata majandustõusu ajal
Nobeli majanduspreemia pälvis 2015. aastal Angus Deaton Princetoni
ülikoolist tarbimise, vaesuse ja heaolu uurimise eest. Deatonit teatakse
eeskätt tema töö järgi tarbimise ning üldisemalt majapidamiste
majanduskäitumise teemal, kuid ta on andnud olulise panuse ka
arenguökonoomika ning rakendusliku ökonomeetria (statistika, mida kasutavad
majandusteadlased) valdkondadesse. Angus Deaton on 70-aastane, kaitsnud
doktorikraadi 1975. aastal Cambridge’i ülikoolis ning töötanud alates
1983. aastast USA-s Princetoni Ülikoolis professorina.