€2 commemorative coins are special circulation coins with a special design on the national side in commemoration of a particular national or European event or topic. The €2 coin is the most suitable for the purpose, owing to its diameter and certain technical properties, which provide sufficient protection against forging. Other characteristics and features, as well as the common side of commemorative coins are similar to standard €2 circulation coins. Each euro-area country can issue a €2 commemorative coin twice a year, except where the euro area countries choose to issue a joint commemorative coin. A member states must submit the design of the planned commemorative coin to other member states and get the approval of the European Commission, Council of the European Union and the euro zone. The designs of officially approved commemorative coins are published in the Official Journal of the European Union.
So far, four joint commemorative coins have been issued:
- "European flag coin"
- "50 years of Europe” – the 50th anniversary of the European Union
- “10 years of EMU” – the 10th anniversary of the European Economic Community and the euro
- “Ten years of euro banknotes and coins” – the 10th anniversary of euro cash
Estonia participated in the issue of the joint commemorative coin of euro area countries in 2012 (further information available on the Eesti Pank’s website).
Additional information on commemorative coins is available on the European Central Bank’s website.